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// Copyright (c) 2010 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.


#include "base/at_exit.h"
#include "base/atomicops.h"
#include "base/platform_thread.h"
#include "base/third_party/dynamic_annotations/dynamic_annotations.h"

// Default traits for Singleton<Type>. Calls operator new and operator delete on
// the object. Registers automatic deletion at process exit.
// Overload if you need arguments or another memory allocation function.
template<typename Type>
struct DefaultSingletonTraits {
  // Allocates the object.
  static Type* New() {
    // The parenthesis is very important here; it forces POD type
    // initialization.
    return new Type();

  // Destroys the object.
  static void Delete(Type* x) {
    delete x;

  // Set to true to automatically register deletion of the object on process
  // exit. See below for the required call that makes this happen.
  static const bool kRegisterAtExit = true;

// Alternate traits for use with the Singleton<Type>.  Identical to
// DefaultSingletonTraits except that the Singleton will not be cleaned up
// at exit.
template<typename Type>
struct LeakySingletonTraits : public DefaultSingletonTraits<Type> {
  static const bool kRegisterAtExit = false;

// Alternate traits for use with the Singleton<Type>.  Allocates memory
// for the singleton instance from a static buffer.  The singleton will
// be cleaned up at exit, but can't be revived after destruction unless
// the Resurrect() method is called.
// This is useful for a certain category of things, notably logging and
// tracing, where the singleton instance is of a type carefully constructed to
// be safe to access post-destruction.
// In logging and tracing you'll typically get stray calls at odd times, like
// during static destruction, thread teardown and the like, and there's a
// termination race on the heap-based singleton - e.g. if one thread calls
// get(), but then another thread initiates AtExit processing, the first thread
// may call into an object residing in unallocated memory. If the instance is
// allocated from the data segment, then this is survivable.
// The destructor is to deallocate system resources, in this case to unregister
// a callback the system will invoke when logging levels change. Note that
// this is also used in e.g. Chrome Frame, where you have to allow for the
// possibility of loading briefly into someone else's process space, and
// so leaking is not an option, as that would sabotage the state of your host
// process once you've unloaded.
template <typename Type>
struct StaticMemorySingletonTraits {
  // WARNING: User has to deal with get() in the singleton class
  // this is traits for returning NULL.
  static Type* New() {
    if (base::subtle::NoBarrier_AtomicExchange(&dead_, 1))
      return NULL;
    Type* ptr = reinterpret_cast<Type*>(buffer_);

    // We are protected by a memory barrier.
    new(ptr) Type();
    return ptr;

  static void Delete(Type* p) {
    base::subtle::NoBarrier_Store(&dead_, 1);
    if (p != NULL)

  static const bool kRegisterAtExit = true;

  // Exposed for unittesting.
  static void Resurrect() {
    base::subtle::NoBarrier_Store(&dead_, 0);

  static const size_t kBufferSize = (sizeof(Type) +
                                     sizeof(intptr_t) - 1) / sizeof(intptr_t);
  static intptr_t buffer_[kBufferSize];

  // Signal the object was already deleted, so it is not revived.
  static base::subtle::Atomic32 dead_;

template <typename Type> intptr_t
template <typename Type> base::subtle::Atomic32
    StaticMemorySingletonTraits<Type>::dead_ = 0;

// The Singleton<Type, Traits, DifferentiatingType> class manages a single
// instance of Type which will be created on first use and will be destroyed at
// normal process exit). The Trait::Delete function will not be called on
// abnormal process exit.
// DifferentiatingType is used as a key to differentiate two different
// singletons having the same memory allocation functions but serving a
// different purpose. This is mainly used for Locks serving different purposes.
// Example usages: (none are preferred, they all result in the same code)
//   1. FooClass* ptr = Singleton<FooClass>::get();
//      ptr->Bar();
//   2. Singleton<FooClass>()->Bar();
//   3. Singleton<FooClass>::get()->Bar();
// Singleton<> has no non-static members and doesn't need to actually be
// instantiated. It does no harm to instantiate it and use it as a class member
// or at global level since it is acting as a POD type.
// This class is itself thread-safe. The underlying Type must of course be
// thread-safe if you want to use it concurrently. Two parameters may be tuned
// depending on the user's requirements.
// Glossary:
//   RAE = kRegisterAtExit
// On every platform, if Traits::RAE is true, the singleton will be destroyed at
// process exit. More precisely it uses base::AtExitManager which requires an
// object of this type to be instantiated. AtExitManager mimics the semantics
// of atexit() such as LIFO order but under Windows is safer to call. For more
// information see at_exit.h.
// If Traits::RAE is false, the singleton will not be freed at process exit,
// thus the singleton will be leaked if it is ever accessed. Traits::RAE
// shouldn't be false unless absolutely necessary. Remember that the heap where
// the object is allocated may be destroyed by the CRT anyway.
// If you want to ensure that your class can only exist as a singleton, make
// its constructors private, and make DefaultSingletonTraits<> a friend:
//   #include "base/singleton.h"
//   class FooClass {
//    public:
//     void Bar() { ... }
//    private:
//     FooClass() { ... }
//     friend struct DefaultSingletonTraits<FooClass>;
//   };
// Caveats:
// (a) Every call to get(), operator->() and operator*() incurs some overhead
//     (16ns on my P4/2.8GHz) to check whether the object has already been
//     initialized.  You may wish to cache the result of get(); it will not
//     change.
// (b) Your factory function must never throw an exception. This class is not
//     exception-safe.
template <typename Type,
          typename Traits = DefaultSingletonTraits<Type>,
          typename DifferentiatingType = Type>
class Singleton {
  // This class is safe to be constructed and copy-constructed since it has no
  // member.

  // Return a pointer to the one true instance of the class.
  static Type* get() {
    // Our AtomicWord doubles as a spinlock, where a value of
    // kBeingCreatedMarker means the spinlock is being held for creation.
    static const base::subtle::AtomicWord kBeingCreatedMarker = 1;

    base::subtle::AtomicWord value = base::subtle::NoBarrier_Load(&instance_);
    if (value != 0 && value != kBeingCreatedMarker) {
      // See the corresponding HAPPENS_BEFORE below.
      return reinterpret_cast<Type*>(value);

    // Object isn't created yet, maybe we will get to create it, let's try...
    if (base::subtle::Acquire_CompareAndSwap(&instance_,
                                             kBeingCreatedMarker) == 0) {
      // instance_ was NULL and is now kBeingCreatedMarker.  Only one thread
      // will ever get here.  Threads might be spinning on us, and they will
      // stop right after we do this store.
      Type* newval = Traits::New();

      // This annotation helps race detectors recognize correct lock-less
      // synchronization between different threads calling get().
      // See the corresponding HAPPENS_AFTER below and above.
          &instance_, reinterpret_cast<base::subtle::AtomicWord>(newval));

      if (newval != NULL && Traits::kRegisterAtExit)
        base::AtExitManager::RegisterCallback(OnExit, NULL);

      return newval;

    // We hit a race.  Another thread beat us and either:
    // - Has the object in BeingCreated state
    // - Already has the object created...
    // We know value != NULL.  It could be kBeingCreatedMarker, or a valid ptr.
    // Unless your constructor can be very time consuming, it is very unlikely
    // to hit this race.  When it does, we just spin and yield the thread until
    // the object has been created.
    while (true) {
      value = base::subtle::NoBarrier_Load(&instance_);
      if (value != kBeingCreatedMarker)

    // See the corresponding HAPPENS_BEFORE above.
    return reinterpret_cast<Type*>(value);

  // Shortcuts.
  Type& operator*() {
    return *get();

  Type* operator->() {
    return get();

  // Adapter function for use with AtExit().  This should be called single
  // threaded, but we might as well take the precautions anyway.
  static void OnExit(void* unused) {
    // AtExit should only ever be register after the singleton instance was
    // created.  We should only ever get here with a valid instance_ pointer.
        base::subtle::NoBarrier_AtomicExchange(&instance_, 0)));
  static base::subtle::AtomicWord instance_;

template <typename Type, typename Traits, typename DifferentiatingType>
base::subtle::AtomicWord Singleton<Type, Traits, DifferentiatingType>::
    instance_ = 0;

#endif  // BASE_SINGLETON_H_

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