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// Copyright (c) 2008 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.

// The LazyInstance<Type, Traits> class manages a single instance of Type,
// which will be lazily created on the first time it's accessed.  This class is
// useful for places you would normally use a function-level static, but you
// need to have guaranteed thread-safety.  The Type constructor will only ever
// be called once, even if two threads are racing to create the object.  Get()
// and Pointer() will always return the same, completely initialized instance.
// When the instance is constructed it is registered with AtExitManager.  The
// destructor will be called on program exit.
// LazyInstance is completely thread safe, assuming that you create it safely.
// The class was designed to be POD initialized, so it shouldn't require a
// static constructor.  It really only makes sense to declare a LazyInstance as
// a global variable using the base::LinkerInitialized constructor.
// LazyInstance is similar to Singleton, except it does not have the singleton
// property.  You can have multiple LazyInstance's of the same type, and each
// will manage a unique instance.  It also preallocates the space for Type, as
// to avoid allocating the Type instance on the heap.  This may help with the
// performance of creating the instance, and reducing heap fragmentation.  This
// requires that Type be a complete type so we can determine the size.
// Example usage:
//   static LazyInstance<MyClass> my_instance(base::LINKER_INITIALIZED);
//   void SomeMethod() {
//     my_instance.Get().SomeMethod();  // MyClass::SomeMethod()
//     MyClass* ptr = my_instance.Pointer();
//     ptr->DoDoDo();  // MyClass::DoDoDo
//   }


#include "base/atomicops.h"
#include "base/basictypes.h"
#include "base/dynamic_annotations.h"

namespace base {

template <typename Type>
struct DefaultLazyInstanceTraits {
  static Type* New(void* instance) {
    // Use placement new to initialize our instance in our preallocated space.
    // The parenthesis is very important here to force POD type initialization.
    return new (instance) Type();
  static void Delete(void* instance) {
    // Explicitly call the destructor.

// We pull out some of the functionality into a non-templated base, so that we
// can implement the more complicated pieces out of line in the .cc file.
class LazyInstanceHelper {
  enum {
    STATE_EMPTY    = 0,

  explicit LazyInstanceHelper(LinkerInitialized x) { /* state_ is 0 */ }
  // Declaring a destructor (even if it's empty) will cause MSVC to register a
  // static initializer to register the empty destructor with atexit().

  // Check if instance needs to be created. If so return true otherwise
  // if another thread has beat us, wait for instance to be created and
  // return false.
  bool NeedsInstance();

  // After creating an instance, call this to register the dtor to be called
  // at program exit and to update the state to STATE_CREATED.
  void CompleteInstance(void* instance, void (*dtor)(void*));

  base::subtle::Atomic32 state_;

  // Resets state of |helper| to STATE_EMPTY so that it can be reused.
  // Not thread safe.
  static void ResetState(void* helper);


template <typename Type, typename Traits = DefaultLazyInstanceTraits<Type> >
class LazyInstance : public LazyInstanceHelper {
  explicit LazyInstance(LinkerInitialized x) : LazyInstanceHelper(x) { }
  // Declaring a destructor (even if it's empty) will cause MSVC to register a
  // static initializer to register the empty destructor with atexit().

  Type& Get() {
    return *Pointer();

  Type* Pointer() {
    // We will hopefully have fast access when the instance is already created.
    if ((base::subtle::NoBarrier_Load(&state_) != STATE_CREATED) &&
        NeedsInstance()) {
      // Create the instance in the space provided by |buf_|.
      instance_ = Traits::New(buf_);
      CompleteInstance(instance_, Traits::Delete);

    // This annotation helps race detectors recognize correct lock-less
    // synchronization between different threads calling Pointer().
    // We suggest dynamic race detection tool that "Traits::New" above
    // and CompleteInstance(...) happens before "return instance_" below.
    // See the corresponding HAPPENS_BEFORE in CompleteInstance(...).

    return instance_;

  int8 buf_[sizeof(Type)];  // Preallocate the space for the Type instance.
  Type *instance_;


}  // namespace base


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